BLADDER CANCER

Bladder is a pouch that collects and stores urine from the kidneys

 
Male Pelvis
Female Pelvis

WHAT IS BLADDER CANCER

This is a rapid, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lining of the bladder. It is the fourth most common cancer in the USA. Bladder cancer commonly appears as warty growth in the bladder

 

CAUSES OF BLADDER CANCER

This is not entirely known but it is

  1. Three times more common in smokers than in non smokers, smoking causes 50-60% of the bladder cancer in males and 25% in females.
  2. Exposure to chemical substances like benzene and aryline may also cause bladder cancer.

WHAT INCREASES MY RISK OF DEVELOPING BLADDER CANCER

1- Tobacco use,

2- Age over 40 years,

3- Being male 2-3 times more than females,

4- Occupational exposure to cancer causing chemicals, e.g. leather, wool, rubber, textile industry

5- People using regular hair dyes

6- Schistosomiasis.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS

  1. Blood in urine-haematuria,
  2. Pain during urination—dysuria,
  3. Urinating small amounts frequently-urinary frequency,
  4. Recurrent urinary tract infection

HOW IS BLADDER CANCER DIAGNOSED

  1. Urine test – Finding of blood and abnormal cell
  2. Imaging including intravenous pyelogram, ultrasound, CT
  3. Cysotscopy – Telescopic examination of the bladder

HOW IS IT TREATED

Depending on the stage of cancer.

Bladder cancer is usually curable if diagnosed while the cancer is still confined to the bladder. 74% of bladder cancers are diagnosed at this stage.

TREATMENT OPTIONS

1-Surgery to remove the cancer growth

a. Trans Urethral Resection of Bladder Tumour( TURBT)

b. Cystectomy - remove all of the bladder and formation of an ileal conduit.

2- Chemotherapy, which is instilled into the bladder

3- Radiotherapy,

4- Biological therapy.

Important part of treatment follow up is to have regular cystoscopic examination. This allows recent tumours to be diagnosed while they are still small and restricted to the bladder.

 

CAN I PREVENT BLADDER CANCER

Bladder cancer cannot be prevented but you may be able to reduce some of the risk factors

  1. Stop smoking,
  2. Avoid exposure to industrial chemicals,
  3. Avoid exposure to arsenic,
  4. Eat healthy diet,
  5. Increased intake of soya products,
  6. Avoid dehydration,
  7. Take vitamin A and C supplements.

If you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer be sure to follow your health professionals’ instructions about calling when you have problems, new symptoms or symptoms not responding to treatments

  1. bloody urine,
  2. frequency and urgency of urine
  3. back or flank pain.

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